Essay / Academic Rant: Closing the Next Frontier: An Analysis of Offshore Oil and Wind Exploration Along the Atlantic Coast

The United States is moving to close the next great American energy frontier: the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). This move is part of an overall energy agenda to increase the United States’ energy independence through domestic energy. Since President Obama took office, the nation’s dependence on foreign oil has been at a 20-year low, and he has formed policies aiming to increase domestic energy production.[1]  In January 2015, President Obama proposed a plan for the Department of the Interior’s 5 Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program that has the potential to reopen the Atlantic coast for oil and gas drilling.[2] While this plan could stimulate domestic oil production and further the President’s energy independence political agenda, opening the Atlantic to drilling also has the potential to create serious negative externalities. Similarly, the Atlantic coast is a goldmine for offshore wind production with North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia holding 82 percent of the total Atlantic coast wind potential in the OCS.[3] Under the Obama Administration’s Smart from the Start initiative, Wind Energy Areas are being designated for development of offshore wind.[4]  The development of renewable domestic energy has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on fossil fuels it also faces several technological and political barriers to implementation. Below, I will compare the policies and politics surrounding oil exploration and wind energy development in the Atlantic OCS, and determine which energy source can be considered a greater contributor to the United States’ goals of achieving energy independence.

Overview of the All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy

On March 15th, 2012, President Barack Obama announced that the United States is in need of “an energy strategy for the future – an all-of-the-above strategy for the 21st century that develops every source of American-made energy.”[5] Increasing the nation’s energy independence through domestic energy production has been a crucial part of the United States’ energy agenda since President Obama took office and released his “Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future,” and his All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy. President Obama’s energy strategy emphasizes the domestic production of oil and natural gas, the growth of renewables, the promotion of energy efficiency, and the pursue of “cleaner” coal technologies. These goals are encompassed in the strategy’s three key elements: to support economic growth and job creation, to enhance energy security, and to deploy low-carbon energy technologies and pursue a clean energy future.[6] The United States have seen many changes in the domestic energy sector—natural gas consumption has risen 18 percent since 2005; since 2009 total energy harvested from wind, solar, and geothermal sources has more than doubled; and since its peak in 2007, US gasoline consumption has fallen by 5.5 percent.[7] Furthermore, the Energy Information Administration projects petroleum consumption to decline after 2019.[8] President Obama’s focus on domestic natural gas and oil production contributed more than 0.2 percentage points to real GDP growth in 2012 and in 2013, with employment increases of 133,000 between 2010 and 2013.[9] The solar and wind industries also experienced tens of thousands of employment increases.[10]

Several Obama Administration initiatives were selected to support the all-of-the-above energy strategy. These include initiatives that directly impact oil and wind production and consumption. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 invested nearly $50 billion to deploy renewable energy, and the Administration approved 11 wind projects since 2009.[11] In 2011, national efficiency standards for light-duty cars and trucks doubled for 2025, with the goal to reduce oil consumption by 2.2 million barrels a day in 2025.[12] However, the development of oil is supported by the Administration through the Department of Interior’s Five-Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, with new safety standards and the issuing of 260 new shallow-water well permits and 229 new deep water well permits.[13] Furthermore, as part of his Fiscal Year Budget for 2015, President Obama set aside $5.2 billion in funding for clean energy technology activities at the Department of Energy, including $400 million in cleaner energy from fossil fuels. [14] This year, the 2016 Budget invests approximately $7.4 billion in clean energy technology programs that conduct research, development, and deployment efforts that stimulate the evolution and use of clean energy sources.[15]

Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling

Oil is one of the world’s most important energy resources because of its versatility and relative cheapness. The average barrel of oil is refined to yield about 50 percent gasoline, 20 percent diesel and heating oil, 10 percent jet fuel, with the remaining oil going toward a range of materials including lubricants, waxes, plastics, tar and more.[16] Currently, 95 percent of US energy import dollars are spent on petroleum, and many sectors—especially the transportation sector—are dependent on the exploitation of oil.[17]

History of Atlantic Coast Oil Exploration

Offshore oil and gas exploration in the United States provides a large portion of the nation’s oil and gas supply. Historically, large oil and gas reservoirs are found offshore from Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska, but some data suggest that portions of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic Planning Areas may contain significant oil and gas resource potential.[18] Offshore oil and gas drilling on the US Atlantic coast took place from 1947 to the early 1980s with 51 exploratory wells on federal leases on the outer continental shelf.[19] Several wells were drilled in the state waters of the Florida Keys from 1946-1962, including wells on Key Largo, Big Pine and Sugarloaf in 1946; on Plantation Key in 1949, on Key Largo in 1953, on Big Pine Key in 1959, on Marquesas Key in 1959 and 20 miles from Marquesas in 1960.[20] In 1978, a drilling lease was sold in the Southeast Georgia Embayment off the course of Georgia and Florida in which seven wells were drilled and found to be dry.[21] Federal leases were purchased for offshore North Carolina, but were later paid by the federal government to relinquish their leases to drill in 1990.[22] Additionally, nearly 30 wells containing significant gas flows about 100 miles off the coast of New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia were explored and abandoned due to falling gas prices in the 1980s.[23] In 1982, oil companies drilled 10 unsuccessful exploratory wells about 120 miles off the coast of Massachusetts.[24]

Atlantic coast oil and gas drilling was later banned as a part of annual moratoria though the Interior Appropriations Bill from 1982 to 1992.[25] The annual moratoria withdrew 35 million acres in 1982 in Central and Northern California and the mid-Atlantic; 54 million acres in California planning areas, the North Atlantic, and the Eastern Gulf of Mexico in 1984; 45 million acres in California planning areas and the North Atlantic in 1985; 8 million acres in the North Atlantic from 1986 to 1988; 33 million acres in Northern California, the North Atlantic, and the Eastern Gulf in 1989; and 84 million acres in California planning areas, the North and Mid-Atlantic, the Eastern Gulf, and all of the North Aleutian Basin in 1990. In 1990, President Bush issued a Presidential Directive in 1990 that placed a blanket moratorium on several unleased areas including the North Atlantic coast and the Eastern Gulf of Mexico coast, which was extended in 1998 by President Clinton through 2012.

In March 2010, President Obama announced his intention to open offshore oil drilling in the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic areas, but lease plans were cancelled in May 2010 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.[26] Subsequently, the Obama Administration reversed their policy agendas and announced a ban on offshore drilling in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast through 2017.[27] However, in January 2015, President Obama proposed a plan for the Department of the Interior’s 5 Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program that has the potential to reopen the Atlantic coast for oil and gas drilling. The proposed plan for 2017-2022 will open parts of the southeastern US coastline for oil leasing in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Alaska and the portion along Virginia, North and South Carolina and Georgia.[28] The Draft Proposed Program was published on January 29th, 2015, received comments until March 30th, and the Draft Proposed Program is scheduled to be for comment in 2016.[29] Within the Draft Proposed Plan, lease sales in the Mid-Atlantic and South-Atlantic are scheduled to open in 2021.[30]

Governing Processes and Policies

The Bureau of Ocean Management’s (BOEM) program for oil and gas development establishes a schedule of oil and gas lease sales proposed for planning areas of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The program determines the size, timing, and location of potential leasing activity that the Secretary of the Interior decides will best meet national energy needs.[31] After BOEM’s leasing process, the lessee begins conducting geophysical seismic surveys early to gather information on geologic formations and possible oil and gas traps.[32] Following that, exploratory and development wells are drilled and a Development and Production Plan is submitted for approval.

Several federal, state, and local laws and policies govern and regulate offshore gas and oil activity. On the federal level, one of the most important overarching environmental laws governing energy exploration is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision-making processes.[33] NEPA requires federal agencies to prepare Environmental Impact Statements to be submitted to EPA for comments and filing. Proposed and existing oil facilities must prepare detailed emissions data to prove compliance with the Clean Air Act.[34] The Clean Water Act requires oil companies to apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit and renew it every 5 years.[35] Furthermore, the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 encourages and enables states to complete Coastal Zone Management Plans and requires state review of federal actions that impact land and water in their coastal areas. As part of the Proposed Program for oil and gas exploration, and related to the Coastal Zone Management Act, BOEM received comments from the states adjacent to the project regions, including 10 of the 14 Atlantic states.[36] According to the Draft Program Proposal, of the 10 states that responded, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia supported the inclusion of their coasts for the Proposed Program in the Atlantic.[37] Massachusetts, Delaware, and Maryland expressed opposition to outer-continental activity, whereas New York, Rhode Island and Florida expressed concern but did not state a position in support or in opposition as part of their comment.

Offshore Wind Exploration

Similarly to offshore oil exploration, the development of offshore wind production along the Atlantic can provide a host of benefits, but also face many barriers. Wind energy is renewable, and siting wind turbines along an open coastline circumvents many of the challenges faced with onshore wind development.[38] In offshore settings, there is minimal turbulence (except for during storms), it’s sited on the outer-continental shelf, which is federally governed, and it has a huge power potential that has yet to be fully explored.[39] For the Atlantic coast alone there is an estimated 1,000 GW in potential offshore wind, a value nearly equal to the total installed capacity of the nation.[40] The Department of Energy’s National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) report determined that the US has enough wind energy resources and the current ability to integrate up to 54 GW, a figure that DOE admitted is conservative considering the number of sites not included in the estimation. [41] The development of offshore wind has the potential to spur economic growth and the green job market, reduce the consumption of and reliance on fossil fuels, as well as increase the nation’s energy independence.

Infrastructure

Offshore wind development involves three key processes: generation, collection, and delivery. Energy is collected when the wind rotate the blades of a wind turbine, which power a generator that converts wind energy into electricity.[42] Offshore wind turbines are usually attached to the seabed using a fixed foundation. In deeper waters, floating platforms are needed to support the wind turbines.[43] Several types of floating platform technologies are under development, including ones with platforms that can be floated to a site and jacked up above surface, and those that are gravity based, and can be later anchored to the seafloor.[44] The electricity is typically transported to shore through cables along the ocean floor. Offshore wind can deliver energy directly to coastal cities where prices and demand are high, generation and transmission siting are the most challenging, and can additionally reduce the need for onshore long-distance transmission lines. [45]

Governing Laws and Policies

Several federal and state laws and policies also govern the exploration of wind resources offshore. Some federal laws governing oil and gas exploration offshore overlap with those that govern wind exploration. For one, offshore wind projects must also be leased through BOEM with at least one EIS and a Record of Decision regarding the Construction and Operations Plan.[46] Section 388 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 enabled BOEM to grant leases on the Outer-Continental Shelf, and in addition to BOEM, the U.S. Coast Guard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and the Department of Defense are also involved in the offshore wind permitting process.[47] Moreover, several other federal wildlife and environmental laws influence offshore wind projects, including the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Essential Fish Habitat), Endangered Species Act (Section 7), Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.[48]

States policies play a huge role in facilitating the development of offshore wind energy. Firstly, the Coastal Zone Management Act requires State review of federal activity offshore coastal states. Secondly, state policies that require the purchase of power from offshore wind projects are pivotal to the success of offshore wind exploration. This is largely because wind energy projects require higher capital costs, possible grid reinforcements, and involves uncertainties associated with the initial deployment of offshore wind projects.[49] States can encourage offshore wind projects by creating demand through renewable portfolio standards (RPS), and mechanisms including carve-outs, minimum requirements, and overarching goals. Currently, 29 states and the District of Columbia have RPS laws—which mandates the procurement of a certain amount of renewable energy—and another 8 states have voluntary goals for renewable energy procurement.[50] Carve-outs have been incorporated into New Jersey, Maryland, and Maine’s each RPS laws with offshore wind carve-outs for certain amounts of offshore wind.[51]

Development Process

The development of offshore wind on federal land along the Atlantic OCS begins with leasing through BOEM and the Smart from the Start Program. The Department of Energy launched the Smart from the Start wind energy program specifically for the Atlantic coast to streamline the regulation of offshore wind.[52] The permitting process begins with BOEM prescreening large Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) suitable for offshore wind development—since 2009, BOEM identified six WEAs along the Atlantic OCS for future offshore wind development[53]. BOEM’s identification of WEAs also combines siting with environmental permitting by performing Environmental Assessments under NEPA. Environmental permitting is a huge barrier to offshore wind development—Cape Wind took more than a decade to complete it—and its streamlining through the Smart from the Start program can significantly reduce it.[54] A power purchase agreement (PPA) is the next step in the development process for offshore wind. A PPA ensures that the energy project will receive compensation for the generation of electricity from the resource.[55] PPA approvals are made by state public utilities commission (PUCs) which oversees the development of an integrated resource planning process that determines the mix of generation, distribution, and transmission needed to meet the electrical needs of a state. RPS and carve-outs help ensure PUCs include renewable energy sources in their integrated resource plans.[56]

Following the leasing and permitting process is the interconnection process, in which a developer of an offshore wind project is required to follow regulations set forth by the Federal Regulatory Commission (FERC).[57] DOE estimates that without a mass of offshore wind projects to justify a coordinated offshore grid, early projects will be integrated using the generator interconnection process, which requires the generator to pay for the transmission line and any upgrades.[58] What can result is a development of transmission systems that are not the most cost-effective or efficient. However, in 2010, a consortium of investors created the Atlantic Wind Connection to support transmission of underwater electric transmission projects, providing an option for an efficient interconnection method along a 150-mi stretch from northern New Jersey to Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.[59]

Currently no commercial-scale offshore wind projects operate in the United States, though seven commercial wind leases have been awarded off of the Atlantic coast by BOEM in Massachusetts, Massachusetts-Rhode Island, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.[60] However, Deepwater Wind LLC is expected to develop the first US offshore wind farm. Deepwater Wind won a July 2013 federal auction to develop a 30-megawatt wind farm off the coasts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts and is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2016.[61] They received $290 million in financing and obtained a 20 year contract with National Grid Plc.[62]

Atlantic OCS as the New Frontier of Domestic Energy

Comparison of Externalities

Due to President Obama’s All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy programs—the 5 Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, and the Smart from the Start Initiative—the Atlantic OCS is framed as the nation’s new energy frontier. While the Obama Administration sees the opening of the Atlantic coast for energy exploration and development to be in line with the nation’s energy needs, the exploitation of the Atlantic coast will come with several costs and externalities. A comparison of the relative impacts of oil exploration and wind energy production is necessary in the face of a historic energy development opportunity.

Drilling for oil along the Atlantic OCS puts the area in increased risk of oil spills and other negative externalities. From 1964-2010, there have been 33 oil spills of at least 1,000 barrels off the US coast.[63] The frequency and size has decreased except for the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, spilling more than 200 million gallons.[64] The Deepwater Horizon spill was the worst oil spill in the nation’s history and is responsible for President Obama’s default on opening the Atlantic coast for oil exploration in 2010. According to the Draft Proposed Program, the Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Straits of Florida Planning Areas were ranked among the highest relative environmental sensitivity scores of all the planning areas.[65] Oil exploration in these areas will disturb the fragile ecosystems present in the Atlantic. Furthermore, seismic blasting in the Atlantic could harm fish populations while injuring as many as 138,000 marine mammals and disturbing the vital activities of as many as 13.5 million more.[66] The continued exploitation of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, further contributing to climate change.

Wind energy production also calls for a balancing of social interests with environmental concerns. The impacts of oil drilling result from all phases of its life cycle—extraction, transportation, storage, combustion, and decommissioning—whereas the impacts of a wind farm’s life cycle—planning, siting, installing, operating, and decommissioning—are mostly concentrated within the construction phase.[67] Also, comparatively, wind energy is not subject to the catastrophic risks characterized by oil and gas drilling. Other impacts of offshore wind developments include increased noise levels, risk of collisions, changes to benthic and pelagic habitats, alterations to food webs, and pollution from increased vessel traffic or release of contaminants from seabed sediments. [68]  Wind turbines may also provide environmental benefits, too, however: besides providing low-carbon energy, turbine foundations may act as artificial reefs, and a buffer zone around a wind farm may create a de-facto marine reserve. [69]

The pursuit of both offshore oil and wind energy production carries economic implications for adjacent coastal states. The All-of the-Above Energy Plan, as well as the oil and gas industry insist that opening the East Coast to offshore drilling can assist the nation in gaining energy independence, generate millions of dollars in revenue for states and create thousands of jobs. However, a recent report by Oceana found that offshore oil and gas development along the Atlantic could impact the 1.4 million jobs and over $95 billion in gross domestic product that rely on those marine ecosystems.[70] Despite the state’s submission of comments in support of oil exploration, North Carolina communities have rallied in opposition of offshore drilling to protect local economies. Offshore oil drilling is estimated to have the potential to provide nearly 4,000 jobs and $203 million to Dare County, NC, yet a third of Dare County residents work in tourism, which has a local economic impact of nearly $1 billion annually that may be affected by oil exploration.[71] In comparison, the development of wind energy over the next 20 years could create about 91,000 more jobs than offshore drilling. North Carolina also has the highest wind resource and job creation potential of any state in the targeted offshore drilling zone, marking the state as an Atlantic coast goldmine, and possibly an area of contention. BOEM reported that it hasn’t received nominations for OCS renewable energy leasing in the Eastern Planning Areas, making it unlikely that commercial leasing for renewable energy resources in the area will proceed during the 2017-2022 program timeline.[72] This poses a caveat—leases with discoveries of oil or gas can be held as long as production continues, so renewable energy leasing occurring during the 50-year production lease may be postponed later in the oil leasing process.[73] This may create a conflict of interest in exploiting the most feasible domestic renewable energy sources.

Energy Independence and the New Frontier

President Obama’s Energy Strategy prioritizes the development of domestic energy resources in order to increase national security and gain energy independence. However, when comparing the energy exploitation potential for offshore oil drilling and wind development, Atlantic OCS drilling is dwarfed by the energy potential of wind. Firstly, jobs and energy generation from offshore drilling wouldn’t yield results until 2026 if seismic activity began in 2017, and lease sales in 2018, and economic impacts wouldn’t be realized until 2035.[74] BOEM reports that the Atlantic OCS could produce 4.7 billion barrels of recoverable crude oil in the Atlantic Offshore zone, but only 132 days-worth of the figure are economically recoverable.[75] In comparison to the other offshore zones, the Atlantic OCS provides an insignificant yield of oil for the environmental risks taken to consume them. For comparison, the Gulf of Mexico has more than 10 times the amount of oil technically reserved in the Atlantic OCS (See Figure 1).[76]  In contrast, wind energy is a non-depleting source of energy that could offer more economic and environmental benefits than the continued exploitation of oil. If converted to barrels of oil, the amount of wind energy that could be generated along the Atlantic coast could equal 11.31 billion barrels of oil (of oil equivalent) of wind energy potential to 6.11 billion barrels of oil from offshore drilling (See Figure 2).[77]

figure 1

Figure 1: “Map of Technically Recoverable Crude Oil Resources.” US Geological Survey and BOEM.

figure 2 and 3

Figures 2-3: “Figures from Oceana Report on Offshore Oil vs Offshore Wind” Oceana.

Conclusions

The all-of-the-above energy strategy has the intention to diversify and increase domestic energy production, stimulate economic growth, and promote a clean energy future. The inclusion of the Atlantic OCS in the Five-Year Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program is a political strategy that has questionable impacts. Historically, oil exploration along the Atlantic coast was unsuccessful, uneconomic, or stalled because of political and environmental concerns. The consequences of environmental degradation as a result of oil exploration may take a toll on successful local economies and sensitive ecosystems, and the crude oil yield from the OCS may not be significant enough to justify exploration. Offshore wind production, however, has enormous potential for energy development, job production, and environmental protection and enhancement. However, even with the streamlining of the offshore wind permitting process through the Smart from the Start Program, wind projects continue to face crippling obstacles that rely on the cooperation of states, PUCs, and FERC. Additionally, wind projects face high capital costs, and could use more funding for research and development of technologies. Still, offshore wind development on the Atlantic OCS is the most viable energy source to exploit. Nevertheless, the Atlantic coast is open for exploitation—Deepwater Wind will soon become the United States’ first offshore wind farm, and the 2017-2022 Proposed Plan will be revealed this year with final notice of offshore oil drilling to be determined.


 

[1] The White House. “Advancing American Energy.” The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/energy/securing-american-energy

[2] Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. “Five-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program.” BOEM

[3] Tina Casey. “The Great State Of North Carolina Plunges Deeper Into Offshore Wind Energy.” Clean Technica. 25 January 2015. http://cleantechnica.com/2015/01/25/north-carolina-offshore-wind-energy/

[4] DOE. “National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary” DOE. April 2014.                http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/08/f18/NOWEGIS%20Executive%20Summary.pdf

[5] Furam, Jason and Stock, Jim. “New Report: The All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy as a Path to Sustainable Economic Growth.” The White House. 29 May 2014. https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/05/29/new-report-all-above-energy-strategy-path-sustainable-economic-growth

[6] Executive Office of the President of the United States. “The All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy as a Path to Sustainable Economic Growth.” May 2014. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/aota_energy_strategy_as_a_path_to_sustainable_economic_growth.pdf

[7] Ibid. 6

[8] EIA “Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity.” EIA.September 2005.http://www.eia.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/feature_articles/2005/offshore/offshore.pdf

[9] Ibid. 6

[10] Ibid. 6

[11] Ibid. 6

[12] Ibid. 6

[13] Ibid.2

[14] Executive Office of the President of the United States. “Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2016.” 2015. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2016/assets/investing.pdf

[15] Ibid. 14

[16] Montgomery, Scott. 2011.  The Powers that Be: Global Energy for the Twenty-First Century and Beyond.   Chicago: University of Chicago Press

[17] Ibid. 6

[18] BOEM. “2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Draft Proposal Program.” Department of the Interior. January 2015

[19] Ibid. 18

[20] Tom. “Black Gold in the Keys.” Monroe County Public Library. 4 June 2010. http://www.keyslibraries.org/2010/black-gold-in-the-keys/

[21] Jan Libby-French and Roger V. Amato, “Atlantic Coastal Plain”, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, October 1981, v.65, n.10, p.1930-1932.

[22] Blyth, John. “Black gold in NC” North Carolina Miscellany. https://blogs.lib.unc.edu/ncm/index.php/2010/06/17/black-gold-in-n-c/

[23] Roger V. Amato and LeRon E. Bielak (1989) Texaco Hudson Canyon 642-1 Well

[24] National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling “A Brief History of Offshore Oil Drilling.” National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. http://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/classes/188/materials/bp.pdf

[25] EIA “Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity.” EIA. September 2005. http://www.eia.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/feature_articles/2005/offshore/offshore.pdf

[26] Eilperin, Juliet and Mufson, Steven. “Offshore drill policy reversed.” The Washington Post. 2 December 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/01/AR2010120107185.html

[27] Ibid. 26

[28] Ibid. 18

[29] Ibid. 18

[30] Ibid. 18

[31] Ibid. 18

[32] Ibid. 18

[33] Ibid. 18

[34] Ibid. 18

[35] Ibid. 18

[36] Ibid. 18

[37] Ibid. 18

[38] Montgomery, Scott. 2011.  The Powers that Be: Global Energy for the Twenty-First Century and Beyond.   Chicago: University of Chicago Press

[39] Ibid. 38

[40] Casey, Tina. “The Great State Of North Carolina Plunges Deeper Into Offshore Wind Energy.” Clean             Technica. 25 January 2015. http://cleantechnica.com/2015/01/25/north-carolina-offshore-wind     energy/

[41] DOE. “National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary” DOE. April 2014.                http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/08/f18/NOWEGIS%20Executive%20Summary.pdf

[42] Ibid. 38

[43] Ibid. 41

[44] Ibid. 41

[45] Sims, Douglas. “Fulfilling the Promise of U.S. Offshore Wind: Targeted State Investment Policies.” NRDC. February 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/business/files/offshore-wind-investment.pdf

[46] Ibid. 41

[47] American Wind Energy Association. “Wildlife protection laws & offshore wind energy development in the U.S.” AWEA . http://www.awea.org/Issues/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=4618

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid. 41

[50] Ibid. 41

[51] Ibid. 41

[52] Ibid. 41

[53] Ibid. 41

[54] Ibid. 41

[55] Ibid. 41

[56] Ibid. 41

[57] Ibid. 41

[58] Ibid. 41

[59] Ibid. 41

[60] Ibid. 41

[61] Doom, Justin. “Deepwater Gets Financing for First US Offshore Wind Farm.” Renewable Energy World. 3 March 2015. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/03/deepwater-gets-financing-for-first-us-offshore-wind-farm

[62] Ibid. 61

[63] Casey, Tina. “The Great State Of North Carolina Plunges Deeper Into Offshore Wind Energy.” Clean Technica. 25 January 2015. http://cleantechnica.com/2015/01/25/north-carolina-offshore-wind     energy/

[64] Hampton, Jeff. “Record crowds in Outer Banks against offshore drilling.” The Virginian-Pilot. 22 March       2015. http://hamptonroads.com/2015/03/record-crowds-outer-banks-against-offshore-drilling

[65] Ibid. 41

[66]Cranor, Dustin. “Offshore Wind Would Produce Twice the Jobs and Energy as Offshore Drilling in Atlantic Ocean.” 13 January 2015. Oceana. http://oceana.org/press-center/press-releases/offshore-wind-would-produce-twice-jobs-and-energy-offshore-drilling

[67] National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “Large-scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers.” September 2010. NREL.    http://www.nrel.gov/wind/pdfs/40745.pdf

[68] Bailey, Helen, Kate L Brookes, and Paul M Thompson. “Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future.” Aquatic Biosystems 10 (2014): 8. PMC. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.

[69] Ibid. 68

[70] Ibid. oceana

[71] Ibid

[72] Ibid. 41

[73] Ibid. 41

[74] Cranor, Dustin. “Offshore Wind Would Produce Twice the Jobs and Energy as Offshore Drilling in Atlantic Ocean.” 13 January 2015. Oceana. http://oceana.org/press-center/press-releases/offshore           wind-would-produce-twice-jobs-and-energy-offshore-drilling

[75] Ibid. 41

[76] Ibid. 74

[77] Ibid. 74

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